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Opiates: Differentiating Among Abuse, Addiction, and Dependence


As clinicians seek to make use of the new sublingual formulations of buprenorphine with naloxone (Suboxone— Reckitt Benckiser) and buprenorphine alone (Subutex— Reckitt Benckiser), they must sort out which patients require assistance during tapering or detoxification and which need long-term maintenance therapy. To do so, they must have a contemporary understanding of the nature of physical dependence and addiction.


Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States.

University of Wisconsin Pain & Policy Studies Group.

Pain & the Law.